Child Welfare Programs | Child Health Nursing

CHILD WELFARE PROGRAMS

Child Welfare Programs | Child Health Nursing

INTRODUCTION:

Child welfare encompasses caring & attending to the entire spectrum of needs, i.e. physical, emotional, social & economical needs of the children through comprehensive child welfare services. Child welfare programs seek to provide supportive services to the families of the children, because one of the important responsibility of the society & state is to assist the family in its natural obligation for the welfare of the children welfare of the underprivileged children like street children, orphans, handicaps etc; also needs special attention. Child welfare services are preventive, promotive, developmental & rehabilitative in nature.

CHILD WELFARE SERVICES:

Child health nursing
Child Welfare Programs | Child Health Nursing

Child welfare services involve :
PREVENTIVE,
PROMOTIVE, 
CURATIVE,
DEVELOPMENTAL,
PALLIATIVE & REHABILITATIVE,
aspects of the child care. The child health problems are gigantic & the available resources are only supplementary in nature & are designed to meet certain needs of the most deprived & vulnerable children. Attention is generally focused on three categories of  children in the poor socio-economic group, i.e. children of working mothers, destitute children & handicapped children.      
Comprehensive child welfare services are provided broadly of two type:
A). Services for the basic need of normal children where the  Family & the comity participate.
B).  Services for the needs of physically, mentally or socially handicapped children.

CHILD WELFARE AGENCIES:

The important child welfare agencies in INDIA are:-
  1. INDIAN COUNCIL FOR CHILD WELFARE(ICCW)
  2. CENTRAL SOCIAL WELFARE BOARD
  3. KASTURBA GANDHI MEMORIAL TRUST
  4. THE INDIAN RED CROSS SOCIETY
These agencies have got branches all over the country. Following are some of their activities:-

A). DAY CARE SERVICES:-

 This is for the children of working mother it’s mainly for infants & toddlers.

B). HOLIDAY HOMES:- 

There are organized for children in the age group 12-16Yr. At hill station & sea side resorts.

C). RECREATION FACILITIES:-

 There comprise organization of play centers, public parks, children’s libraries.

WELFARE OF DELINQUENT CHILDREN:

The children out, 1960, in India define delinquent as a child who has committed on offence. Juvenile means a boy who has not attained the age of 16Yr. & a girls who has not attained the age 18Yr. Delinquency is not merely “juvenile crime”. It embraces all deviation from normal youthful behavior & includes the incorrigible, ungovernable  habitually disobedient & those who desert their with behavioral problems & indulge in antisocial practices juvenile delinquency is increasing in India due to change in the culture pattern of the people, urbanization & industrialization.


ETIOLOGY:

  • BIOLOGICAL CAUSES- Biological factors like hereditary defects, defects, feeble mindedness physical defects, glandular disturbances & chromosomal anomaly may contribute for the delinquent behavior. 
  • SOCIAL CAUSES- Broken homes due to death of parents, separation of parents, step mother, disturbed home conditions e.g. poverty, alcoholism, parental neglect child abuse, too many children etc.
  • MISCELLANEOUS-  Absence of recreation cheap recreation, sex-thrilless,  violence in cinemas & television, urbanization, industrialization etc.

PREVENTIVE MEASURES:

Child Welfare Programs

Improvement of family life & tender loving care of children.
Appropriate schooling & healthy teacher thought relationship.
Social welfare services by recreation facilities, parents counseling facilities, etc.
Adequate general health services for early detection & management.

CHILD GUIDANCE CLINIC (CGC):


Child guidance clinic was stated in 1909 in Chicago to deal with problems of juvenile delinquency. At present , it deals with all children or adolescents who for one reasons or other are not fully adjustment to their environment. The objective of CHC is to prevent children from the possibility of becoming neurotics & psychotics in later life.
        The most important aspects of child guidance is psycho-therapy to restore +ve feeling of security in child. Physically health also need to be cored & maintained. Child guidance needs a team approach for correct diagnosis & management.

CHILD GUIDANCE CLINIC TEAM:

  1. Helper by clinical psychologist
  2. Educational psychologist
  3. Psychiatric social workers
  4. Community health nurses
  5. Speech therapist
  6. Occupational therapist
  7. Neurologist
  8. Pediatrician

JUVENILE  JUSTICE  ACT  1986:

With the implementation of the juvenile justice act, 1986, all children acts applicable in different parts of India have been cancelled. Some of the special features of the juvenile justice acts are the followings:-
  • Its provides a uniform legal formwork for juvenile justice in the country, so as to ensure that no child under any circumstances is put in jail or police lock-up.
  • Its establishes norms & standards for administration of juvenile justice in teams of investigation care treatment & rehabilitation.
  • Its lays down appropriate linkage & coordination between the formal system of juvenile justice & voluntary organization it specifically defines the roles & responsibilities of both.
  • It envisages specialized approach towards prevention & treatment of juvenile delinquency in keeping with the development needs of children. 

WELFARE OF DESITITUDE CHILDREN:

Destitute children are in great needs especially of food & shelter. They may be deprived of parents. The children who have no home or who for some reason could not be cared for by they parents are placed in orphanages on institution for orphans.

CHILD PLACEMENT: 

ORPHANAGES- A home of orphans. It may be govt. organization or voluntary organization. Small institute are prepared to provide opportunity for the child to experiences warmth & intimacy of family life, to develop emotional security.
FOSTER HOMES- It’s concerned with the care of the orphans or destitute children. This is an institution where many facilities are available for recaring children other than their natural family. Foster care is given by persons not related by blood.
BORSTAL HOMES- It’s an institution to which young offenders may be sent for reformative training. Boys over 16yrs. Of age & who are too difficulty to handle in a certified school or have misbehaved there are sent to a borstal homes.
REMAND HOMES- It’s a place of detention for juvenile offenders. The child is place under the care of physician, psychiatrist & other trained personals to improved the mental & physical wellbeing.
ADOPTION- it’s the assumption of the responsibility of caring for a child by a person who is not the neutral parents. Legal guidance should be provided to the persons  who wishes to adopt a child.

WELFARE OF WORKING CHILDREN:

IN 1973, the ILO passed a convention establishing 15yr. As the minimum work age for the most sector, while permitted light work from age of 13yrs., provided that such work was unlikely to harm child’s health.

THE CHILD LABOUR( PROHIBITION & REGULATION ACT 1986):

No child are work in any company if they have 12th pass, qualification, other degree and certificate.
No child to get certified to work of hours.
To provide of work on each day shall be fixed (3hrs) in a way after that they have rest (1hr.).
No child shall be required or permitted to work overtime.

PROHIBITION OF THE CHILD MARRIAGE:


The child marriage was forbidden by the sarda act in British India in 1929. inspite to spread of marriage, child marriage are still in practices in many states of India & in rural population.
            The child marriage restraint 1978 fixed the legal minimum age of marriage 21yrs., for boys and for girls 18yrs. Early marriage has a great impact on the various aspect of child health and regulation of fertility. A girl who marriage early age they have more complication and a girl who marriage late phase they have also suffer a more complication. In India early marriage is long time standard and custom. The child are further in citizen of the nation after that they are also taken same step and problems.

Conclusion:

So guys its all about child welfare programs so this program follow standard way of treatment of child health these all are concepts of child welfare programs.
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